Compressed stabilized earth blocks

C.S.E.B. Technology
C.S.E.B. The making…
Soil selection.
Stabilization
Block yard organization.
Comparative study.
Energy effectiveness.
Cost effectiveness.
Advantages.
Limitations.
Methods of construction.
Case studies.
manufacturers.

C.S.E.B. TECHNOLOGY

NEED:
The continued growth in population is going to aggravate the housing situation unless adequate measures are initiated at grass root level. The only constructional materials available in rural areas are bamboo, timber, straw, reeds and mud. About 80% of the total population still dwells in houses made of these above-mentioned materials. These structures are not economically viable because of the maintenance cost due to annual rainfall, storm, flood etc. and susceptibility of attack by insects. The utilization of earth in building construction specially, for rural housing is the oldest but most commonly used by the majority of rural population.

Earth architecture aims to make extensive use of raw earth as the main building material, thereby using a local resource, which can help developing technologies that are energy saving, eco-friendly and sustainable.
5 most important techiniques in earth architecture are:
rammed earth
Adobe
Cob
Wattle & dob
Compressed earth blocks(most popularised)

c.s.e.b. has promoted earth architecture from a traditional craft to a modern technology.


SOIL SELECTION:
A soil is an earth concrete and a good soil for CSEB is more sandy than clayey. It has these proportions:

According to the percentage of these 4 components, a soil with more gravel will be called gravely, another one with more, sand, sandy, others silty or clayey, etc. The aim of the field tests is to identify in which of these four categories the soil is. From the simple classification it will be easy to know what to do with this soil.
Soil identification
A very few laboratories can identify soils for building purposes. But soil identification can be performed by anybody with sensitive analyses. The main points to examine are:
Grain size distribution, to know quantity of each grain size
Plasticity characteristics, to know the quality and properties of the binders (clays and silts)
Compressibility, to know the optimum moisture content, which will require the minimum of compaction energy for the maximum density
Cohesion, to know how the binders bind the inert grains
Humus content, to know if they are organic materials which might disturb the mix.

Not every soil is suitable for earth construction and CSEB in particular. But with some knowledge and experience many soils can be used for producing CSEB. Topsoil and organic soils must not be used. Identifying the properties of a soil is essential to perform, at the end, good quality products. Some simple sensitive analysis can be performed after a short training.

SIMPLE FIELD TESTS
SMELL THE MOIST SOIL FOR THE HUMAS CONTENT:
SMELLS LIKE ROTTEN : A LOT OF HUMAS & ORGANIC MATTER (NOT SUITABLE FOR C.S.E.B.)
SMELLS MUSTY : HUMAS CONTENT (NOT SUITABLEFOR C.S.E.B.)
AGREABLE SMELL : NO HUMAS( SUITABLE FOR C.S.E.B.)


TEST WITH A PRESS AND IMPROVEMENT OF A SOIL:
FOR THIS TEST, WE MUST MAKE 3 COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCKS WITH THE 4 TYPICAL SOILS(ABOUT 25 LITERS PER SOIL).
OBSERVATIONS TO BE RECORDED:
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL.
COMPRESSION & EJECTION.
HUMID STATE OF THE BLOCK.
DRY STATE OF THE BLOCK IN COMPARISION TO THE BLOCK SAMPLE.

RESULTS:
TYPICAL SOILS ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR CEB, BUT THE CLAYEY SOIL IS THE EASIST TO IMPROVE BY ADDING SAND TO DECREASE THE PLASTICITY.
VERY SANDY SOIL CAN ALSO BE IMPROVED WITH MORE CEMENT STABILIZER & LESS COMPRESSION RATIO.


Possible improvements
Gravel soil
sieving ( 12 to 18 mm ) is indispensable to remove the coarse gravel.
A maximum of 15 % by weight of gravel ( max dia 1 cm ) passing the screen
should be allowed.
3. If the soil is too gravely , fine clay powder can be added but it will be too
difficult to mix.
4. Stabilization can be slightly less than 5 – 4 % by weight of cement should
be sufficient.

Sandy soil
Sieving ( 18 mm ) is only required to loosen and aerate the soil .
Do not sieve in very windy areas, especially if the soil is dry .
Stabilization can be 5 % by weight of cement.

Silty soil
A slight crushing might be required .
Sieving ( 12 mm ) is required if the lumps are too big and cohesive .
Adding 15 – 20 % sand might be needed to give more skeleton to the soil.
Stabilization should be 6 % by weight of cement.

Clayey soil
Crushing might be required.
Sieving ( 12 mm ) is required .
Adding 20 - 30 % sand might be needed .
Stabilization should be 5 % by weight of cement.
6-7 % lime can be added for stabilization . Then no sand is required a
combination of cement lime stabilization can give good results.
Ie 2 % cement + 5 % lime.

STABILIZATION:
Soil stabilization
Many stabilizers can be used. Cement and lime are the most common ones.
Others, like chemicals, resins or natural products can be used as well. The selection of a stabilizer will depend upon the soil quality and the project requirements: Cement will be preferable for sandy soils and to achieve quickly a higher strength. Lime will be rather used for very clayey soil, but will take a longer time to harden and to give strong blocks. The average stabilizer proportion is rather low:

PROCESS:
MEASURING:
THE STABILIZATION IS ALWAYS CALCULATED FROM THE WEIGHT OF DRY MATERIAL. AS IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO MEASURE
DRY WEIGHT ON SITE , ALL THE WEIGHTS MUST BE CONVRETED INTO VOLUME.
THEN IT IS INDISPEN SABLE TO KNOW THE DRY DENSITY OF SOIL WHICH IS THE WEIGHT OF 1 LITRE OF DRY SOIL.

PROCEDURE TO FIND THE DRY DENSITY OF THE SOIL:
TAKE SOME OF THE LOOSE SOIL TO BE TESTED ,DRY IT UNDRE THE SUN OR ON A FRYING PAN. THEN MEASURE 1 LITER
OF THIS SOIL AND WEIGHT IT ON A SCALE. THE WEIGHT FOUND WILL GIVE THE DRY DENSITY.

USUALLY A STBBILIZATION WITH 5% OF CEMENT IS ENOUGH FOR MOST OF THE BUILDINGS.
EACH SOIL IS DIFFERENT IN WEIGHT & IN QUALITY & THEN EACH STABILIZATION IS DIFFERENT. THEN IT IS ADVISED TO
CONDUCT SOME TESTS TO FIND THE BEST MIXING RATIO OF SOIL & CEMENT & SOME TIMES SAND.
TO CONDUCT THESE TESTS , START WITH THE FOLLOWING MIX (BY VOLUME)
1 VOLUME OF CEMENT = 15 TO 20 VOLUMES OF SOIL
THEN AFTER 1 WEEK CURING , THE TRIAL BLOCKS CAN BE EXAMINED AND ,IF NEEDED , CHANGE THE RATIO OF
SOIL/ CEMENT/ SAND.

USE ONLY ¼ OR 1/3 OF A BAG OF CEMENT AT ATIME.:
TO DO IT , TAKE 3 OR 4 BUCKETS & DIVIDE ,IN 1 TIME, A BAG OF CEMENT INTO THEM. THEN ADD THE SOIL
PROPORTIONALLY TO 1 BUCKET.

NOTE:MIXING 1 BAG OF CEMENT AT A TIME WILL GIVE BAD RESULT BECAUSE THE SETTING TIME OF CEMENT WILL BE
SHORTER THAN THAT OF THE TIME NEEDED TO MAKE THE BLOCK.
SOMETIMES A SOIL WHICH IS TOO CLAYEY SHOULD BE MODIFIED BY ADDING SAND , IF THE STABILIZER IS CEMENT.
THEN ,SOME TEST CAN BE CONDUCTED BY ADDING PROGRESSIVELY SAND TO THE SOIL ,SO THAT THE BLOCKS ARE
NEITHER CRACKING NOR CRUMBLING.

THE FOLLOWING GRID CAN SIMPLY BE USED FOR THE MEASURING OF SOIL AND
CEMENT , SO THAT THE % OF CEMENT WILL BE AROUND 5%


BLOCK YARD ORGANIZATION.
TYPICAL LAYOUT:


MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

DIGGING
SIEVING

MEASURING

DRY MIXING

HUMID MIXING

CHECK MOISTURE CONTENT

MOULDING

CHECK THE BLOCK QUALITY

HUMID CURING

FINAL CURING AND SLAKING

SPECIFICATIONS OF THE PRESS 3000 (AURAM):
High output from the automatic opening: 1000 strokes/day. = 125 Blocks/Hour (plain full size blocks)
Handling of the press with 3 men
Mix preparation and block stacking with 4 men
High and adjustable compression ratio from 1.6 to 1.83(1.77 for 9 cm height)
Micro adjustment of compression ratio
Double compression with the folding back lid
Rollers to move the press on site: Only 2 men are needed.
Block height adjustable with ring spacers: 2.5 cm and from 5 to 10 cm (recommended is 9 cm)
Micro adjustment of block height: 0.5mm accuracy
Interchange ability of moulds
Moulds are provided for making 4/4, 3/4 & 1/2 sizes
Self-stability with the adjustable braces
Very easy maintenance with grease nipples and grease gun.

PRESSES AND MOULDS


ADVANTAGES OF C.S.E.B.

A local material
Ideally, the production is made on the site itself or in the nearby area. Thus, it will save the transportation, fuel, time and money.

A bio-degradable material
Well-designed CSEB houses can withstand, with a minimum of maintenance, heavy rains, snowfall or frost without being damaged. The strength and durability has been proven since half a century. But let's imagine a building fallen down and that a jungle grows on it: the bio-chemicals contained in the humus of the topsoil will destroy the soil cement mix in 10 or 20 years? And CSEB will come back to our Mother Earth!

Limiting deforestation
Firewood is not needed to produce CSEB. It will save the forests, which are being depleted quickly in the world, due to short view developments and the mismanagement of resources.

Management of resources
Each quarry should be planned for various utilisations: water harvesting pond, wastewater treatment, reservoirs, landscaping, etc. It is crucial to be aware of this point: very profitable if well managed ? disastrous if unplanned!

Energy efficiency and eco friendliness
Requiring only a little stabilizer the energy consumption in a m3 can be from 5 to 15 times less than a m³ of fired bricks. The pollution emission will also be 2.4 to 7.8 times less than fired bricks.

Cost efficiency
Produced locally, with a natural resource and semi skilled labour, almost without transport, it will be definitely cost effective! More or less according to each context and to ones knowledge!

An adapted material
Being produced locally it is easily adapted to the various needs: technical, social, cultural habits.

A transferable technology
It is a simple technology requiring semi skills, easy to get. Simple villagers will be able to learn how to do it in few weeks. Efficient training centre will transfer the technology in a week time.



A job creation opportunity
CSEB allow unskilled and unemployed people to learn a skill, get a job and rise in the social values.

Market opportunity
According to the local context (materials, labour, equipment, etc.) the final price will vary, but in most of the cases it will be cheaper than fired bricks.

Reducing imports
Produced locally by semi skilled people, no need import from far away expensive materials or transport over long distances heavy and costly building materials.

Flexible production scale
Equipment for CSEB is available from manual to motorized tools ranging from village to semi industry scale. The selection of the equipment is crucial, but once done properly, it will be easy to use the most adapted equipment for each case.

Social acceptance
Demonstrated, since long, CSEB can adapt itself to various needs: from poor income to well off people or governments. Its quality, regularity and style allow a wide range of final house products. To facilitate this acceptation, banish from your language "stabilized mud blocks", for speaking of CSEB as the latter reports R & D done for half a century when mud blocks referred, in the mind of most people, as poor building material.


LIMITATIONS OF C.S.E.B.

Proper soil identification is required or lack of soil.
Unawareness of the need to manage resources.
Ignorance of the basics for production & use.
Wide spans, high & long building are difficult to do.
Low technical performances compared to concrete.
Untrained teams producing bad quality products.
Over-stabilization through fear or ignorance, implying outrageous costs.
Under-stabilization resulting in low quality products.
Bad quality or un-adapted production equipment.
Low social acceptance due to counter examples (By unskilled people, or bad soil & equipment).

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION:
Mortars,
like stabilizers, can be made using various proportions of cement and lime.  A good environmentally sound mortar for PEBs can be made using 1 part Hydraulic Lime, 4 parts sand and enough water to make the mortar workable.  

    Pre-packaged mortars, like Brixment brand type-N Coplary Cement, can be used to make a very strong but expensive and environmentally costly mortar.  A homemade version of this mortar can be made by mixing 1 part Portland Cement with 6 parts sand and enough water to make workable.

    Another strong mortar can be made by combining 1 part Portland Cement, 4 parts lime, 32 parts sand and water.

    When mixing mortar, mix all dry ingredients thoroughly before adding water.  After laying up bricks in mortar, keep the mortar moist for a day or so.

Mortaring
Mortar for blocks must be applied to the entire surface of the block, as opposed to ribbon mortar beds often used with conventional brick. Full surface mortaring allows for maximum compressive strength. The same soil used in block making, mixed with water to form a slurry, is usually used as a mortar for binding blocks together into floors and walls. Cement can be added to the mortar mix, but this increases the cost. The main advantage of cement mortar is its quick drying speed.

Design Methods
Block size can be varied easily to accommodate a variety of designs. Walls can be sculptured, rounded, or formed into keystone arches to create custom effects. Relatively unskilled labor can be utilized in construction with compressed earth and caliche block.

Design of structural walls using caliche or soil material block must take into account wall height and thickness, size of block, insulation value, and the desired style and finish. Wall height-to-thickness ratio must be adequate for stability.

The relatively low insulation value of soil or caliche block may make additional insulation necessary. The most cost effective wall thickness for insulation value is 12 inches.

Soil or caliche block structures need not have the "pueblo" style if this is not desired. Many architectural styles are possible. A bond or collar beam is necessary if the roof is supported by the walls. This will serve to spread the loads over the entire wall, and stabilize the tops of the walls from horizontal movement.

Vertical reinforcement is difficult with solid block walls, but can be accommodated with the use of reinforced concrete columns at corners, wall openings, and at intervals in the wall. In this case, the soil block becomes an infill panel. Alternatively, walls made more than one block thick may have internal reinforcing between blocks, and have additional insulation between panels. With this method, care must be taken to ensure that the lower block courses are completely dry before additional courses are added.

Soil blocks are typically stuccoed to prevent them from getting wet. Clear finishes may be applied on the interior.

Particular requirements for hollow interlocking blocks

Interlocking blocks can resist disasters (Cyclones, earthquakes and floods), provided that they are hollow, so as to be reinforced with Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC), at regular intervals. A hollow interlocking CSEB for earthquake resistance must satisfy these requirements:
Extreme consistency in height (1 mm difference maximum is allowed).
Self-aligning to reduce time-wasting adjustments.
Blocks should be hollow and the vertical holes and U shaped blocks should allow casting RCC, according to requirements: To reinforce regularly the masonry vertically and horizontally.
The interlocking keys must interlock transversally and longitudinally to the wall. They should interlock especially well in the length of the wall, which is subject to the shear stress of the earthquake.
Every course must interlock with each other as well as the header of every block in length: to increase the shear strength of the masonry.
Good seating of the blocks on top of each other for properly transmitting the load bearing: All the block area, including the key, must transmit the load.
A binder must bind them: they must not be dry stacked, as the aim is to get a homogenous masonry.
The binder should be a cement-sand mortar of 5 mm thick. It should be quite fluid in order to be workable.
The mould must allow manufacturing of full size blocks but also 3/4 and 1/2 sizes. The blocks must not be cut to match the bond pattern, which will be detrimental to the accuracy, strength and quality of the masonry.
Compressed stabilised earth blocks have a poor bending strength but this is not so critical because the block itself will not bend but the masonry will do. CSEB have very poor shear strength, which is critical in the case of earthquakes. Interlocking blocks will not have a stronger shear strength compared to ordinary CSEB. But the key effect will increase the shear strength of the masonry if the cohesiveness of the material is high enough to keep the link between the key and the body of the block. (Especially shocks and vibrations of an earthquake)



RESEARCHES RELATED TO C.S.E.B.

The following technologies have been mastered and are disseminated since years:
Stabilised rammed earth foundations
Rammed earth walls, rammed manually
Composite plinth – step plinth with CSEB and plinth beam cast in U shaped CSEB
Wide variety of compressed stabilised earth blocks (15 modules available today)
Stabilized earth mortars and plasters
Composite columns – Round hollow CSEB with reinforced cement concrete
Composite beams and lintels – U shaped CSEB with reinforced cement concrete The following technologies are still under research and they will be disseminated only once mastered:
Composite blocks (earth, fibres and stabilizer)
Alternative stabilizers to cement (“homeopathic&rdquo milk of lime and alum)
Alternative water proofing with stabilized earth (soil, sand, cement, lime, alum and tannin from the juice of a seed)

CASE STUDIES:
VISITORS CENTRE, Auroville , India.





ARCHITECT: SUHASINI IYER

. CONSTRUCTED IN YEAR 1998 WITH
GRANDS FROM HUDCO &
FOUNDATION OF WORLD EDUCATION.

.POPULAR & PLESENT PLACE FOR
VISITOR & AUROVILIANS ALIKE.

.A.V.B.C. HAS DEMONSTRATED RITCH
POTENTIAL OF ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND ENERGY SAVING MATERIALS IN IT.

.DESIGNED WITH EMPHASIS ON NATURAL LIGHTING & VENTILATION ALONG WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES.

.COMPRISES OF INFORMATION DESK, EXHIBITATION SPACESES, CAFETERIA,HANDICRAFT SHOP ,BOOK SHOPS ETC. SPECIALLY DESIGNIED FOR VISITORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD.

SPECIAL FEATURES:
PREFABRICATED FERROCEMENT ELEMENTS WERE USED FOR DOORS & OVERHANGS,THEREBY DOING AWAY WITH THE USE OF WOOD.

A 4-METRE GRID USING LOAD-BEARING PILLARS AND ARCHED OR COBBLED OPENINGS WAS MADE WITH C.S.E.B. TO REDUCE THE COSTS.

SOLAR, WIND, &BIOMASS ENERGY, WATER MANAGEMENT &RECYCLING TECHNIQUES, MUD AND FERROCEMENT TECHNOLOGY , AND RECLAMATION & AFFORESTATION WERE ALL INTEGRATED IN THE PROCESS.

C.S.E.B. FOR DOMES & PREFABRICATED FERROCEMENT CHANNELS WERE CONSIDERED AS THE BEST SOLUTIONS FOR ROFFING.

LIMIT THE USE OF CEMENT & CONCRETE.

RE HABILATED HOUSE IN GUJARAT AFTER KUTCH EARTHQUAKE.

Today Compressed Earth Blocks (CSEB) rival the finest standard bricks available in terms of strength and durability; are highly cost-effective and environmentally-friendly; can be safely used for construction of multi-storey buildings; and lend themselves to a variety of creative and aesthetically pleasing effects.


manufacturers.
RESEARCH ORGANISATIONS:
CRATerre EAG AUROVILLE BUILDING CRNTRE
CBRI (ROORKEE) MUD VILLAGE SOCIETY (DELHI)
ASTRA (BANGLORE) HUDCO

TYPOLOGY OF BLOCKS:
The Auram press 3000 can presently produce 16 different types of Compressed Stabilised Earth Blocks.


These series are available:
Plain square blocks
Plain rectangular blocks
Round blocks
Hollow square blocks
Hollow rectangular blocks
Hollow square interlocking blocks
Hollow rectangular interlocking blocks
Plain square interlocking blocks
Plain rectangular interlocking blocks
Various special blocks

PARTITIONS

Partitions have become today’s most mobile and flexible wall system as their secret is making it possible to divide one room into several different ones with incredible sound insulation.

Partitions are usually thin and light of construction. where the essential purpose is to serve as divisions.

Building a partition will not increase the actual floor area available within a house but by subdividing it more appropriately it can provide extra rooms which will make living in the house more enjoyable.

Whatever the purpose of the partition, a number of points need to be considered:

Lighting - natural daylight may not be necessary although it is often desirable. If an existing window is not going to be included in the partitioned off area, a new window could be added in an outside wall. Alternatively glazing could be incorporated into the partition to 'borrow' light from the adjacent room, this can easily be incorporated along the top of the partition.

Ventilation - although a window is probably the most common form of ventilation, it is quite possible to include an electrical extractor fan to ventilate the new area.

Electrics - often when a room is divided, it is necessary to change the ceiling lights. The existing light may need to be repositioned and a new light and switch may need to be added in the 'new' area..

Services -
Outlets may also be required on the partition for heaters, shower units etc.
Plumbing may also be required. The most obvious requirement is where the partition is being built to create a shown area.

Glass partitions:
Glass is very commonly used for partitions.
Usually used in offices, restaurants,workshops and also residences.
Many types of treatments are done on glass for it to loose its transparency.
Cause of which it can be used in bedrooms and bathrooms also.




Glass Blocks:

Now a days glass blocks are also used as partitions.

The standard size of one block is ,
7 ½” * 7 ½”
6 ½” * 6 ½”

They are usually joint by white cement.

One glass block cost around Rs 120 to Rs 130.



Rotating Glass Panels Used In A Partition:
Use of translucent panels which are fixed into stainless steel rods.

12 mm thick------rs.85/sq. ft
10 mm thick------rs 75
Glass block-120 to 130 rs
Adhesives used-
Araldite
Silicon
u.v. glow
Poloshing-
Crystal polish-rs10/running feet
Bewelling-rs 40 per running feet
Half round/full round-rs40 per running feet

Free standing metal room dividers:


These room dividers are fee standind i.e. assemblies not required.
Can be removed when not wanted.
Are portable.
Sound absorbing to some extent.
Full length aluminum hinges add strength and stability throughout the entire divider.


Room dividers can be locked together to form unlimited lengths.
Room Dividers will provide multiple and variable sized class or work areas without the limitations and costs of ceiling mounted track systems.


Room Dividers come in 6 heights ranging from 4' to 8'. The length of the divider depends on the number of panels you select. Available lengths are: 5'9" (3 panels), 9'-5" (5 panels), 13'-1" (7 panels), 16'-9" (9 panels), 20'-5" (11 panels), 24'-1" (13 panels).

Timber partitons :
Also known as stoolhings ,or stoothed ,stud or quarter partitions.
Consists of vertical members called studs or quarters.
2 main horizontal members known as head and sill.
Studs are stiffened by nogging pieces or noggings at vertical intervals of from 0.9 to 1.2 metre which are fitted more or less horizontally and tightly between the studs.
if provisions has to be made for a door the door posts should be sufficiently rigid to resist the impact of the door.



Plasterboard partitons:

Plaster board can be used to cover stud partition.
Consists of aerated gypsum encased in paper.
There are 4 types of plaster boards,
a) gypsum wallboard
b) gypsum lath
c) gypsum base board
d) gypsum plank
Available in plain and insulating grade.

Three types of joints which are used are:
Tapered edge
Square edge
Bevelled edge
Gypsum wallboard-
Ideally suited for direct decoration because the paper covering to one surface is smooth and ivory coloured.
Different sizes available: 2438mm x 1200mm
1829mm x 900mm
1219mm x 914mm
Available in two thicknesses 9.5 mm & 12.7 mm
It is secured by nails which has flat head and smooth shank.

b) Gypsum lath-
Narrow width plaster board.
Cheaper than wall board.
It has grey paper covering and characterised by rounded edges.
Sizes available: 406 mm x 1200 mm
406 mm x 1219 mm
406 mm x 1372 mm
Thk. 9.5 mm & 12.7 mm
Plastering required.

c) Gypsum base board-
Design for a plaster finish.
Square edged plaster board.
Sizes available: 914 mm x 1200 mm
914 mm x 1219 mm
914 mm x 1372 mm
Thk. 9.5 mm.
d) Gypsum plank-
19 mm thk. Plaster board.
Sizes available: 600 mm x (2350,2400,2700,3000) mm
Mainly used for encasement of steel columns and beams.




Aluminium frame partitions
The present concept of modular design in offices and commercial establishments has offered a wide scope of applications for use of aluminium extruded sections in door and partition.
The strength, low density, corrosion resistance and design flexibility of aluminium make it an ideal material for partitions.
The partitions can be so designed to have wooden panels at the bottom and glass on the top.
They can be built on site with very little disturbance to the masonry.
Being very light, these sections don’t add up much to the load on the structure.







WOOD-WOOL CEMENT PARTITIONS
The material consists of wood-wool (wood shavings) and ordinary cement.
Long shavings from 3 to 6 mm wide are coated with liquid cement, consolidated into slabs by means of a machine press, and then stored to mature.
The slabs are very light, can be easily fixed and sawn, and provide a good key to the plaster which is applied to the surfaces after fixing.
Their dimensions vary from 1800 to 4000 mm long by 600 mm wide by 50, 75 and 100 mm thick.
50 and 75 mm thick walls are more commonly used when the height does not exceed 2.4 to 3 m respectively for the cavity walls.



CLAY AND TERRA-COTA BRICK AND BLOCK PARTITIONS
THE COMMONEST TYPE OF CLAY PARTITION IS THE ORDINARY SOLID BRICK WALL OF 105mm {or 65mm IF LAID ON EDGE}
SUCH WALLS ARE RELATIVELY STRONG AND FIRE RESISTANT but THEIR WEIGHT PRECLUDES THEIR USE FOR PARTITIONS
HENCE CLAY BLOCKS WHICH ARE LIGHT ARE USED.
LIGHTNESS IS OBTAINED BY MAKING THEM HOLLOW.

Table giving the usual range of sizes in which clay blocks are made.


HEIGHT LIMITATION
62.5 WIDE BLOCK-HEIGHT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 3m
75 WIDE BLOCK-HEIGHT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 3.65m
100 WIDE BLOCK-HEIGHT SHOULD NOT EXCEED 6m
Height of one block corresponds to the height of three bricks plus two joints [{3*65}+{2*10}]
Blocks are built in cement mortar and are bonded in usual way with staggered vertical joints.
Advantages
Satisfactory mechanical strength, light, good heat insulation, fireproof, non-shrinkable and vermin proof.

Types of hollow clay blocks


A: smooth-faced block- faces being decorated as required

B: keyed block- deep sinking form a good key for plaster


C: rug face block- can be used for internal and external walls


D: six cavity load bearing block. Used as inner leaf of cavity wall


E: FIXING BLOCK.NAILS CAN BE DRIVEN DIRECTLY INTO THESE BLOCKS.




PRECAST CONCRETE BLOCK PARTITIONS
PRECAST CONCRETE BLOCKS ARE
-SOLID: FOR GENERAL BUILDING USE INCLUDING BELOW d.p.c LEVEL
-HOLLOW: FOR GENERAL BUILDING USE INCLUDING BELOW d.p.c LEVEL

CELLULAR: MAINLY FOR INTERNAL NON-LOADBEARING WALLS [i.e PARTITIONS]
THE BLOCKS ARE COMPOSED OF A BINDER WHICH IS USUALLY CEMENT, ALTHOUGH LIME IS ALSO USED, AND AGGREGATES LIKE NATURAL STONE, CRUSHED BRICK.etc

Insulation figures of single leaf partition-


Thank you

FLOORING

P.V.C.FLOORING

RUBBER FLOORING

LINOLEUM FLOORING


P.V.C. [POLY VINYL CHLORIDE] FLOORING]

INTRODUCTION
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a major thermoplastic
material finding use in a very wide variety of
applications and products.
PVC's major benefit is its compatibility with many different kinds of additives, making it a highly versatile polymer. PVC can be plasticised to make it flexible for use in flooring and medical products.

Its compatibility with additives allows for the possible addition of flame retardants although PVC is intrinsically fire retardant because of the presence of chlorine in the polymer matrix.
Its good impact strength and weatherproof attributes make it ideal for construction products.
PVC can be clear or coloured, rigid or flexible, formulation of the compound is key to PVC's "added value".

Things to Do Before Installation
Verification of the installation date.
Ensuring the removal of all "breakables" from the room.
Determining who will remove furniture, appliances and the sub-floor, if needed .
Arranging for the disconnection of gas appliances and icemakers.
Determining if any change to the height of the floor require adjustments to doors in order for them to close properly.
Ensuring the removal of items in storage areas and closets where the floor is to be resurfaced.
Make certain drapes, wall hangings and pictures are removed from walls.
Verify that your in-home temperature is appropriate for installation.

PVC flooring is made of soft PVC, and other materials such as cork tiles may have a PVC coating. Types of PVC flooring are cushion vinyl, sheet vinyl and vinyl tiles, and contain phthalate softeners, which are released into the air.

PVC INTERLOCKING FLOOR TILES

PERFORATED TILES - ANTI SLIP These perforated tiles are ideal for creating a workspace that's clean, safe and functional. With a 1/4" hole, they're very easy to clean, as the perforations catch dust, dirt and other particles that are quickly removed with a vaccum. Size per Tile is 12 x 12 inches x 3/4 inch thickness. Border Strips are 12 x 2 1/2 inches x 3/4" thickness with Beveled Edges.

CUSHIONED TILES - SHOCK ABSORBENT These cushioned tiles offer unparalleled air cushioned comfort. Great for aerobics studios. This anti-fatigue comfort tile greatly reduces stress where work is conducted while standing, or where noisy machines that cause strong vibrations are used. Resistant to mold and mildew. Cushioned tiles make an ideal covering for damp and cold basement floors; are easily assembled, interlocking one to the other; and form a strong but cushioned floor surface with multiple applications.

MULTI LOCK VERSA TILE A Thermo-plastic rubber, (PVC), 20" X 20" X 5/16" thick interconnecting
tile is designed for extra heavy vehicle traffic, (fork lifts, etc.), as well as heavy foot traffic. Great for basketball and roller hockey courts. 3.75
lbs. per tile. Actual coverage of each tile is 19 5/8" x 19 5/8" or 2.67 Sq. Ft. The coin finish provides an anti-slip surface. A great
economical solution for new surfaces, or to repair old
worn out, cracked surfaces in warehouses, dock areas,
high traffic entrance areas, industrial workshops, sports
and leisure centers, arenas, schools, public buildings,
walkways. Available in smooth surface also for sporting courts.

RUBBER FLOORING
Rubber tile floors gives a room a high-tech look. Rubber flooring was once made from the milky sap of the rubber tree, but most rubber tile flooring is now synthetic or manmade. Rubber tile flooring is resilient, flexible and durable. Rubber flooring is resistant to burns and dents; it's built-in self-releasing wax allows some rubber tile flooring to self heal most scratches and abrasions. Rubber tile flooring comes in wet suit finishes, primary and pastel colors, and in industrial studded rubber sheet or rubber tiles.
Rubber Flooring is washable, easy to maintain & available in various designs like
Chip Rubber Flooring, Granite Rubber Flooring & Marble Rubber Flooring.
These floor coverings beautify the home & office. In kitchens, bars, and industrial
settings, rubber floorings with an anti-slip textured surface resists grease and
chemicals, and it rolls up for easy handling and maintenance. The rubber flooring
can be installed in stadiums and arenas, sports and entertainment facilities, schools
and universities, healthcare, commercial, office and retail facilities.

PROPERTIES
It is washable,
easy to maintain & available in various designs like
Chip Rubber Flooring,
Granite Rubber Flooring &
Marble Rubber Flooring.
These floor coverings beautify the home & office.
In kitchens, bars, and industrial settings, rubber floorings with an anti-slip textured surface resists grease and chemicals, and it rolls up for easy handling and maintenance.
The rubber flooring can be installed in stadiums and arenas, sports and entertainment facilities, schools and universities, healthcare, commercial, office and retail facilities.

CHIP RUBBER FLOORING

Chip Rubber Flooring is available
in 7 colours!
992 Blue Flake 518 Black Flake 407 Chocolate Flake Chip Rubber Flooring 522 Slate Flake 546 Grey Flake 560 Chocolate Flake 917 Milk Chocolate Flake
  Sizes Width        : 1200mm Thickness : 3mm - 6mm Length      : 10-20 meter rolls

Granite Rubber Flooring

Granite Rubber Flooring is available in a granite effect in 5 colours! 466 Dark Grey Speckle 455 Rust Speckle 477 Mustard Speckle Granite Rubber Flooring 452 Blue Speckle 411 Mocha Speckle   Sizes Width        : 1200mm Thickness : 3mm - 6mm Length      : 10-20 meter rolls

Marble Rubber Flooring

Marble Rubber Flooring is marblised
rubber flooring available in 18 colours!
872 Midnight Blue Marble
630 Mahogany Marble 766 Dark Grey Marble Marble Rubber Flooring 852 Dark Blue Marble 602 Rust Marble 855 Red Marble 895 Red/Black Marble 777 Fawn Marble 723 Green Marble 604 Black Marble 860 Brown Multi Marble 757 Light Tan Marble 758 Cream Marble 711 Dirty Grey Marble 653 Olive Marble 747 Brown Marble 627 Brown Marble 702 Light Blue Marble
 Sizes Width        : 1200mm Thickness : 3mm - 6mm Length      : 10-20 meter rolls


LINOLEUM FLOORING

What is Linoleum Flooring?
Linoleum is a highly durable, ecologically
friendly substance. It can last fifty years
and more and still be an excellent flooring.
In fact, it continues to become more durable
after installation due to the oxidation the
flax oil.
The original resilient flooring invented in 1863 is made from clay, cork, wood flour, linseed oil, resins, and pigments applied to a jute backing (tile has a dimensionally stable fiberglass backing).
Dubbed the "40 year floor" because of its durability, this all natural sheet (2.5mm thick 79" wide) and tile (2.5mm thick, 20" x 20") flooring is available in many exciting new colors.

Why is it better?
· No toxic off-gassing
· Highly durable and withstands heavy loads
· Non petroleum-based and biodegradable
Other features and benefits
· Cost effective because of long-life and low maintenance costs
· Adds to good indoor air quality; inherently anti-bacterial
· Easy to clean
· When heat-welded, seams are water-tight unlike vinyl composition tile (VCT)
· Inlays and heat-welding provide design flexibility
· Twice the indentation resistance of VCT
· Less costly to maintain and greater stain resistance
· Anti-static

Maintenance
Dry or wet floor method.

Price Comparison
The cost of linoleum flooring varies with many factors. The initial
cost of material is higher than vinyl composite tile but lower
maintenance and longer wear provide a better value.

Linoleum advantages
Linoleum is a beautiful surface that is available in a remarkable range of colors and patterns. Because it can be cut, linoleum lends itself to creative floor design with patterns and bands to create unique floors for every room in your home. It´s comfortable and resilient underfoot.
Linoleum is extremely durable and has a life expectancy of decades with a minimum of maintenance, which makes it ideal for high traffic areas. It´s water resistant so it´s a logical choice for kitchens, bathrooms, laundry, and mud rooms. It doesn't´t generate static electricity so it´s appropriate for offices too.
The color is integral to the flooring, so if you drop a knife you can repair the damage and reseal it. If it´s not too large a ding, it may even self-heal.
It is also characterized by being naturally anti-microbial. This makes it a good choice for schools and hospitals, and would be great solution in a child´s room, nursery, or playrooms. It´s easy to clean; generally sweeping and occasional damp mopping is about all that´s required.
In addition to using for floors, linoleum also makes nice countertops everywhere but where it may come in contact with food. Because it is finished with acrylic, it isn´t suitable for kitchen counters unless you use a chopping board or have a designated counter for food preparation.
The cost of linoleum usually runs about the same as high-end vinyl and is often comparable to wood flooring or carpet.

Linoleum disadvantages
Though linoleum is beautiful and durable, it has its weaknesses. It must be protected from moisture in the sub flooring, which makes it a poor candidate for basements or concrete sub floors. Armstrong recommends against using it in bathrooms, though Forbo uses it liberally throughout their sales literature. Read the manufacturer´s recommendations for installation to prevent voiding the warranty.
Nevertheless, linoleum is very common for bathroom installations. Because it is made of linseed oil, it is water-resistant; most vendors suggest adding a bead of silicone caulk as extra insurance to prevent water from getting to the sub flooring. Joints where the flooring meets the tub or shower would be the most likely candidates for sealing.
Some folks consider not being able to install it themselves to be a disadvantage too. Most manufacturers and vendors maintain that sheet linoleum should be installed by pros, though tile may be installed by do-it-yourselfers.

Linoleum tile installation
The following steps are an outline, but shouldn´t be considered a comprehensive guide for your linoleum tile installation.

Prep the floor. Linoleum tile can be installed over existing flooring if it is securely attached to the sub floor. If it isn´t, you´ll need to rip it out. However you approach it, the surface to which you intend to put your linoleum needs to be smooth, clean, and dry without any bumps, dirt, oil, or paint that could prevent a tight fit.
Use a water-resistant Portland-cement filler to create a smooth surface. Mix to the consistency of peanut butter, then apply with a mud knife. Keep it smooth to avoid having to sand more than necessary.
Sand to a smooth, even surface.
While working on the floor preparation, put the linoleum tile in the room for a couple days to acclimatize to room temperature. (It tends to be brittle if it´s too cold.)
Use a chalk line to determine placement of tile. Use a carpenter´s square to make sure you have 90 degree angles.
If installing borders, precut edges with a utility or linoleum knife, then dry fit pieces. For a nice corner, cut 45 degree angles to miter joints
Apply adhesive according to manufacturer´s instructions, apply tile, then use a hand roller to ensure a good seal. A 100-pound rollers is recommended.
Once all the tile is laid, apply sealer according to manufacturer´s instructions.

Removing old linoleum
Removing old flooring is hard, dirty work no matter how you cut it. There are a few things to keep in mind before you start.
If the flooring is is firmly attached to the floor, your simplest course may be to put an underlayment down and not bother with stripping the old material up. Just screw down 1/4" masonite or cement board, mud the seams, and install your tile on top. This is especially effective if you are doing floors in different rooms and the difference in floor thickness isn´t apparent.
If you have to take up the old flooring, make sure that it does NOT contain asbestos. Old flooring was sometimes backed with asbestos and when it is disturbed it releases asbestos fibers into the air. It is a very BAD thing, so be careful. Take a small sample to your flooring company. They should be able to tell you if asbestos is present. If so, you´ll need to hire someone with experience doing asbestos abatement, or use an underlayment over the existing floor.
Methods of removal depend on how well attached the flooring is, the original adhesive, and the flooring itself. Often experimentation is needed to come up with the right approach. Using a pole, steel, or a razor scraper may work, various solvents including boiling water are common, or even renting a floor stripper might work. If you have a hardwood sub floor, try scoring the surface with a utility knife, then pull up as much of the flooring as possible. Take an old towel and fold it into quarters, then pour boiling water on the towel. Let it sit for a couple minutes. You should be able to scrape up the left over backing and adhesive.
Ultimately, removing old flooring is hard work and it may take a
few false starts to get the right combination of tools or solvents to
attack yours.

Maintaining linoleum
Once it is installed and sealed, you can keep it looking new for years by just sweeping, occasionally damp mopping, and applying a sealer periodically. The best way to make sure you care correctly for your linoleum floors is to read the manufacturer´s instructions for maintenance.
To mop, use just water or water and a little mild detergent. Don´t permit standing water because that may loosen the tiles around the edges. Some people add about a tablespoon of baby oil to the water occasionally to help restore natural oils lost over time.
To reseal the floors, use the manufacturer´s suggested sealant once a year or so. Or you may be able to use a water-based wax. To remove the wax, use isopropyl alcohol in water (1 part alcohol to 3 parts water) to remove the old wax. Scrub well and rinse thoroughly. Make sure the area is well ventilated, wear gloves, and something to protect your eyes.
Never use harsh solvents or cleaners though. Those with a high or low pH can discolor and pit the floor´s surface.

Benefits
Utilizes renewable resources emits no harmful pollutants increases floor durability
Limitations
Greater sound problems

thank you..

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