Antonio da Sangallo

Antonio da Sangallo, born in Florence in 1485, was the nephew of two da Sangallo architects, Giuliano and Antonio the Elder. He trained under their tutelage before arriving in Rome in approximately 1503. Although obviously influenced by his uncles, his architecture proved to adhere to the classicism of the High Renaissance. da Sangallo designed numerous architectural projects throughout his life, such as the interior of
Capella Paolina in the Vatican, Palazzo Palma-Baldassini, Rome, in 1520, Palazzo Sacchetti, Rome, begun in 1542, and Palazzo Baldassini, which evokes the architecture of ancient Rome with its massive masonry. After a period as Raphael’s assistant, in 1539 he became the chief architect for St. Peter’s and supplied designs for the alteration of Bramante’s plan (Musgrove, 1987). Although not executed, his plan advocated altering the Greek plan into a more traditional cathedral plan, considering liturgical requirements. For many years he was employed as a military engineer working on fortifications around Rome. Antonio da Sangallo died in 1546 in Rome, having spent much of his life working on St. Peter’s.

With this page of sketches (Figure 1.4) da Sangallo appears to have been employing diagrams to calculate visually. The diagrams may have worked to serve his memory for difficult items such as numerous dimensions and proportions, or as simple outlines to frame his concentration of a specific subject. They may not have acted as an imitation, but instead were used to convey basic spatial relationships.Diagrams may be defined in mathematical terms as assisting to present a definition or ‘to aid in the proof of a proposition.’ Additionally, they can be outlines or abstractions that provide the basic scheme of something to reveal ‘the shape and relations of its various parts’ (OED, 1985). Similar to a definition of sketches, diagrams may help to isolate the essence of a concept or proposition.

On the right side of the page stands a column, giving just enough information to recognize it as such. A simple outline, the column has been overlaid with a grid and is accompanied by a series of numbers, possibly  escribing dimensions or calculations pertaining to the construction of the column. The left side of this page reveals an inverted column where the capital and base have been dimensioned but the shaft, having been foreshortened, reveals its relative unimportance. Around the periphery, as partial musings, are pen testing marks, capital carvings, small column elevations, and unfinished details of moldings and stairs. It is possible to view two tones of the brown ink used for this sketch, conveying a sense of the passage of time. This is especially visible where he crosses out particular numbers. It might be assumed that either the sketch was drawn at one time and altered later with a different mix of ink, or that da Sangallo freshly dipped his pen before crossing out the inappropriate numbers after reconsideration.

The ‘look’ of the column was obviously unimportant, as he avoided shadows or details. Slightly skewed to the right, vertical fluting extends beyond the capital top, suggesting that he began calculating the sections from the base. The section numbers can be equated with the long list of numbers viewed horizontally while they vary in individual dimensions. The horizontal section markings may represent the pieces intended for assembly in construction of the column or a key for the changes in the diameter or entasis. Most importantly, it was unnecessary for da Sangallo to carefully render the column because the brief outline acted to visually reference the spatial relationships. The left column also has been dimensioned, and here the details are small parts of the planned carving. These limited suggestions of ornament were enough for him to remember what had been  lanned for each portion.

Baldassare Peruzzi

A prominent architect of the high Renaissance in Rome, Baldassare Peruzzi’s approach was influenced by the work of Bramante and Raphael. His peers respected him for his revival of the art of stage
design, and for his expertise in the art of perspective drawing. Peruzzi arrived in Rome in 1503 from Siena. He began as a painter under Pinturicchio, and was commissioned in 1509 by the Sienese banker Agostino Chigi to design the Palace Farnesina. The palazzo reflects his strong sense of proportion and his interest in the principles of mathematics as set down by Alberti. Different in plan than other Roman palaces of the time, Villa Farnesina has two wings flanking a central loggia, containing frescos by Raphael.

Much of Peruzzi’s experience was obtained in the Vatican Workshop assisting Donato Bramante, and, later, collaborating with Raphael until 1527 when he fled to Siena precipitated by the Sack of Rome. Bramante had envisioned a rebuilding of St. Peter’s based on a Greek cross plan, and Peruzzi’s plan suggested a variation (Allsopp, 1959). Other projects designed by Peruzzi individually or in collaboration, in addition to St. Peter’s, include: fortifications near Porta Laterina and Porta S. Viene, Palazzo Pollini, San Nicolò in Carpi, and the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne in Rome. He died in Rome in 1536, and Serlio, who included Peruzzi’s  rawings prominently in his treatise, heralded his influence on architecture.

This ink and wash sketch demonstrates a three-dimensional study of what seems to be a sepulcher, or tomb chest, with an apsidiole form. This small projecting chapel structure consists of a self-contained entity, possibly planned for an interior wall of a cathedral side aisle. Drawn freehand in perspective, or a version of an elevation oblique, the sketch appears somewhat distorted, obviously not calculated or measured. Because this view employs washes for shadows and a completed composition, Peruzzi was able to interpret and evaluate the proposed solution. The sketch, then, suggests the importance for Peruzzi to quickly comprehend three-dimensional relationships. The sketch acted as a method of evaluation to represent either an image from his mind’s eye or an emerging design solution. Although the ink techniques are minimal and scratchy, the sketch contains enough information to visualize the form as a whole.

Peruzzi must have understood the sketch as part of a process. Although showing the aedicule as a whole, the technique of the lines are quick and loosely constructed, suggesting not a solution, but a momentary snapshot of a thought in the process. The columns are straightened by additional lines in a method of ‘making and matching,’ numbers are sprinkled over the top and other façades, and pentesting lines appear in the background (Gombrich, 1969, p. 29). These elements, which appear on and around the sketch, suggest the little value given the image by Peruzzi after the information was conveyed in a dialogue of the design process. Even though the columns are not straight and the distances between the columns are irregular, the sketch conveys a compositional whole, displaying proportions, relationships and symmetry. The ink wash provides depth that enhances the three-dimensional illusion, helping to judge the final effects of the whole. Being both a definitive view and a design in process, the sarcophagus/tomb-chest stand has been drawn and redrawn in a search for its relationship to the columns and figures. This reveals how the design was still fluid and could be reevaluated when seen in conjunction with other elements.

This sketch gave a quick proportional and compositional view to Peruzzi, allowing him to see the whole at a decision point in his thinking.

Leonardo da Vinci

It is impossible to discuss a history of architectural sketches without an example from Leonardo da Vinci, whose numerous sketchbooks reveal the genius of an architect, painter, sculptor, and inventor.
Although he built or finished very little architectural work, he proposed designs for domed, centrally planned churches, fortifications, numerous mechanical inventions, and buildings in various scales from chapels to palaces to cities. At an early age he started in the workshop of painter Andrea del Verrochio. Throughout his career, Leonardo worked as a military engineer in Milan, in his own studio in Florence, and later in his life, on projects for King Louis XII in France. It was in Amboise, France, where he died in 1519. His works that remain include extensive sketchbooks, some sculpture, and paintings such as the Mona Lisa, Virgin of the Rocks and the fresco The Last Supper in San Maria delle Grazie, Milan.

A consummate observer, Leonardo took an empirical approach to satisfy his curiosity about the nature of the world, giving him the ability of ‘sight and insight’ ( Janson, 1970). He felt that experience is acquired by the senses and, subsequently, that seeing involved an active process. Feeling a need to represent nature as he viewed it, his approach was opposed to that of universal beauty as discussed by Alberti. He viewed vision as the source of scientific truth (Barasch, 1999).
In 1487 Leonardo produced a model for the design of the dome of the Milan Cathedral. This page from his ketchbook, Codex Atlanticus (Figure 1.2), presents some of the design process for the tiburio of this cathedral. It shows the stacking of bricks or blocks to structure the light arches and buttresses. Typical of Leonardo’s sketches, it is possible to view details of construction and connection, as the blocks are rendered with interlocking notches. As a design study, the sketch also displays
rough beginnings and alterations, showing a centerline and horizontals to guide proportions. Only half of the construction has been detailed; Leonardo understood enough to move on to another drawing or a model. Perhaps he rejected how the proposal was progressing, or the sketch had simply served its purpose and  ould be set aside.
This page has numerous identical stippling marks as the  recto. These marks were  resumably used as guidelines and also acted as identical templates to explore multiple variations for assembly and construction. The marks are in fact pinpricks that resemble the pounced guidelines of a cartoon used to transfer a design onto a fresco. Leonardo was well aware of the transfer techniques of cartoons using bilateral symmetry. It is evident that on other sheets from the Codex Atlanticus, he folded the paper to prick guidelines through both sides of the paper to perceive a symmetrical whole (Bambach, 1999). Evidence of a similar technique can be viewed on this page; a prominent crease down the center. The irregular spacing of the marks coincides exactly, strongly suggesting that at least part of each sketch was pricked simultaneously, or possibly, the pages were first folded and then pricked through all layers.1 This points to an economy, in that Leonardo would not need to recalculate the tiburio, but make minor alterations to the structural form or the stacking of the blocks on identical sheets. In this way, one can view the architect/builder concerned with the solidity of the structure as well as the artist, utilizing known transfer techniques.

Donato Bramante (1444–1514)

Bramante was one of the first of the great High Renaissance architects, influencing numerous
prominent architects of Rome such as Peruzzi and Sangallo. He is best known for reviving the architecture
of classical antiquity, which had begun with the works of Alberti (Allsopp, 1959). Vasari
reported that Bramante spent much of his time studying and sketching the buildings in Rome (Vasari, 1907).

Born Donato di Angelo di Anthonio da Urbino/Pascuccio, it is speculated that he studied with
Piero della Francesca and/or Andrea Mantegna. His first notable building was S. Maria Presso S.
Satiro in Milan. In Rome, some of Bramante’s most celebrated and influential projects were for
Pope Julius at the Vatican, where he designed the Cortile di S. Damaso and the Cortile del
Belvedere. With an interest in centrally planned churches similar to Leonardo, he also designed a
Greek cross plan for St. Peter’s with a vast central dome. His expressive building of the classical tradition
was the Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, 1502.

Bramante’s design for the Tempietto was sited in the courtyard of the Church and Monastery of
San Pietro in Montorio. It constitutes a diminutive temple acting as a Martyria, standing on the place
presumed to be St. Peter’s Martyrdom. Small and circular, it revisits antique forms appealing to contemporary Christians’ preferences, crowned with a hemispherical dome resembling the Pantheon.
This small monument displays simple proportions where the width of the dome is equal to the height
of the interior cylinder (Allsopp, 1959).

The sketch above exhibits a small shrine-like structure, representing an example of a centrally planned building. The sketch reads as an elevation of an octagon-shaped dome on a raised foundation. In plan, the building presented appears to be shaped in the form of a cross with small projections containing porches; it is vaguely reminiscent of Palladio’s Villa Rotunda.

Bramante’s concern with the reference to a shrine led him to draw this sketch demonstrating its volume
from the exterior, rather than interior space. Here, he used the porch to accent the central
domed space, stressing the qualities of a monument, a temple from antiquity.
The building’s organization describes an octagon within a Greek cross imposed within a square,
but the sketch presents an image somewhere between a perspective and an elevation, as the face of
the porch has been drawn slightly taller than the side porches. To stress the central altar and promote
a three-dimensional effect, Bramante employs shading on the side of the octagon, further confusing
the flat façade of the elevation. The sculptural figures on the roof have been drawn with the same lack
of complexity as the scale figures standing on the stairs. Although the sketch does not appear to be
hurried, Bramante describes the stairs with minimal detail. The set on the left display some definition,
while the other set of stairs have been represented simply by double diagonal lines. This technique
concentrates the focus to the center, and emphasizes the fact that the building was designed to
be viewed equally well from all angles.

The sketch suggests a self-reflexivity, as it refers to the many centrally planned structures designed
by Bramante. It also recalls the three-dimensional/volumetric qualities of Bramante’s concern for a
building’s mass. The architectural historian James Ackerman wrote about the volume of Bramante’s
walls: ‘[W]e sense that where the earlier architect drew buildings, Bramante modelled them’ (1961,
p. 27). Although this design for a small building may not be directly related to the Tempietto, it is representative of a theme, one that Bram ante explored throughout his career.

Honeycomb in a Garden

This is  a wooden pavilion in a botanical garden in Medellin , Colombia .
South America takes inspiration from nature itselt .
'Plan B' Architects and JPRCR Architects created an organically expanding wooden meshwork structure to house orchid exhibition units , butterfly reserves and event halls.

Each modular 'Flower Tree' form is composed of a steel -reinforced trunk and six hexagonal petals that form an intricatly laticed patio.

Symbol of Fatimid Architecture : Raudat Tahera , Mumbai.

Raudat Tahera is a mausoleum dedicated to Holiness Dr. Syedna Taher Saifuddin (AQ), 51st Dai-al-
Mutlaq.This magnificent marble structure is situated in the very heart of the Mumbai  City ,in Bhendi Bazaar.
It is constructed by His Holiness Dr. Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin TUS, 52nd Dai-al-Mutlaq in
memory of his father.
Beautiful scandelier inside Raudat Tahera
Raudat Tahera From Outside
Gold motifs on cornices and turrets
Design of the door using Fatimid design elements.
Huge rossete on the Dome. It has dia around 12'.
Well maintained garden in front of RaudatTahera.
Typical Fatimid Architecture
Golden Inscriptions from Quran on all the four walls 
close up of scandelier .