The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century ushered in new technologies. Some of these inventions involved use of natural resources like coal and oil. The thought of exhaustible nature of these resources and the environmental damage from the use of these resources never occurred either to the inventors or the subsequent generations. In the quest to sustain galloping economic activity, the dependence on coal and oil has soared at a phenomenal rate over the years. The burnt fuels result in the release of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere causing environmental damage. It has become imperative to look at energy technology with a new perspective.

If we stop using electricity produced by coal & other conventional energy resources, the production will automatically stop.
Therefore, it is necessary to start from the domestic level.

The types of resources that can be used are-
Solar energy
Wind turbines
Hydel energy

Since most renewable energy is ultimately solar energy that is directly collected from sunlight. Energy is released by the sun as electromagnetic waves.
Solar energy can be used for lighting street lights & in pumps.

This system is designed for outdoor application in un-electrified remote rural areas. This system is an ideal application for campus and village street lighting. The system is provided with battery storage backup sufficient to operate the light for 10-11 hours daily.
The solar street light system comprise of
74 Wp Solar PV Module
12 V, 75 Ah Tubular plate battery with battery box
Charge Controller cum inverter (20-35 kHz)
11 Watt CFL Lamp with fixtures
4 metre mildsteel lamp post above ground level with weather proof paint and mounting hardware.

The solar water pumping system is a operating on power generated using solar PV (photovoltaic) system. The power generated by solar cells is used for operating DC surface centrifugal mono-block pumpset for lifting water from bore / open well or water reservoir for minor irrigation and drinking water purpose.

Worms convert organic wastes into one of the best fertilizers. This process is called as vermiculture.
Vermiculture helps in reducing the pressure on the waste lands in the city.
The best kind of worms for composting are "red worms," or "red wigglers." They are often found in old compost piles, but are different from the earthworms you would normally find in the ground. These worms have a big appetite, reproduce quickly, and thrive in confinement. They can eat more than their own weight in food every day! When purchasing red worms, one pound is all you need to get started.

Advantages of Vermicomposting
Vermicompost is an ecofriendly natural fertilizer prepared from biodegradable organic wastes and is free from chemical inputs.
It does not have any adverse effect on soil, plant and environment.
It improves soil aeration, texture and tilth thereby reducing soil compaction.
It improves water retention capacity of soil because of its high organic matter content.
It promotes better root growth and nutrient absorption.
It improves nutrient status of soil-both macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients.

The exhaustibility of LPG & other conventional sources has made these resources very costly.
A cheap way to produce cooking gas is by installing a Biogas plant.
When any organic matter, such as cowdung, crop residue and kitchen waste is fermented in the absence of oxygen, biogas is generated which contains combustible methane (around 60% ) along with carbon dioxide, and traces of other gases. This gas can serve as a convenient fuel that can be used for a variety of applications, such as cooking, lighting, and motive power.
Biomass is yet another important source of energy with potential to generate power to the extent of more than 50% of the country’s requirements.
India is predominantly an agricultural economy, with huge quantity of biomass
available in the form of husk, straw, shells of coconuts wild bushes etc.
Biomass is used as a fertilizer. It is the slurry produced from the Biogas plant.

The origin of Wind energy is sun. When sun rays fall on the earth, its surface gets heated up and as a consequence uneven winds are formed. Kinetic energy in the wind can be used to run wind turbines but the output power depends on the wind speed. Turbines generally require a wind in the range 5.5 m/s.

Blowing wind spins the blades on a wind turbine -- just like a large toy pinwheel. This device is called a wind turbine The blades of the turbine are attached to a hub that is mounted on a turning shaft. The shaft goes through a gear transmission box where the turning speed is increased. The transmission is attached to a high speed shaft which turns a generator that makes electricity.
If the wind gets too high, the turbine has a brake that will keep the blades from turning too fast and being damaged.
You can use a single smaller wind turbine to power a home or a school. A small turbine makes enough energy for a house. In the picture on the right, the children at this school are playing beneath a wind turbine that makes enough electricity to power their entire school.

Energy in water can be harnessed & used, in the form of motive energy or temperature differences. Since water is about thousand times heavier than air is, even a slow flowing stream of water can yield great amounts of energy.


PICO HYDRO projects are hydroelectric projects with a power generation capacity of up to 10 KW which convert energy in water flowing down a gradient into electrical energy. It comprises of tapping water from a natural stream flowing down from a gradient at higher elevation, passing through a water conducting system and letting into a turbine which drives an electrical generator to produce electricity.

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